Osteoarthritis, a serious illness, affects more than 20 million people in the United States. Some medicinal treatments can help alleviate pain, but there is no cure for the disease, which can reverse or slow down the disease associated with the cartilage.
MIT engineers have developed a new material that can direct medications for cartilage, which could improve the treatment of osteoarthritis. The material can penetrate the affected tissue, which can potentially treat narcotics and penetrate deeply into the cartilage.
Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering of the MIT, Paula Hammond, a member of the MIT Institute of Integration, says, "Here are some of the most common types of therapy that can enter harmful cells and change their behavior," says Senior Researcher of Cancer Research and Research.
In the study of rats, researchers have suggested that this new material, the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), has been far more effective than injecting drugs itself.
Brett Geiger, Master of MIT, is the author of an article published on November 28. Medical translation medicine. Other authors are Srl Wang, Master of MIT, Robert Padar, Associate Professor of Pathology at Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Alan Grodzinski, Professor of Biotechnology at MIT.
Osteoarthritis is a progressive disease that can be caused by trauma, for example, line splint; which can also be caused by the gradual aggravation of the cartilage, depending on the age of the person. Flat connective tissue that protects the joints is derived through the so-called chronucleotides, but can not easily be replaced after damage.
Previous studies have shown that IGF-1 helps restore the cartilage of animals. However, many osteoarthritis promising animal studies have not produced good results in clinical trials.
The MIT team, because of their combined purification of drugs, has managed to reach the targeted bedrockite level. In order to overcome them, they have come up with material that can be passed through cartilage.
The spherical shaped molecule they contain consists of many branch structures called the dendrum in the central convex side. At each point of the molecule, there is a positive charge that binds it to the negatively charged cartilage. Some of these payments can be replaced by a short, flexible, water-loving polymer, called PEG, which turns into a surface and covers the positive charge. IGF-1 molecules were added to the surface.
When these particles are added to the particles, they stick to the cartilage surface and then begin to diffuse. They are easier than IGF-1 free, because the positive spheres of the sphere do not allow them to bind them to the cartilage and wash them away. However, the charged molecules are not constantly constructed. Thanks to the flexible PEG circuits that cover the charge and open the charge, the molecules can reduce the cartilage, allowing them to penetrate deeper into the fabric.
"We tied the material to the fabric and found the optimum charge to prevent further diffusion, and it is not so strong that it sticks to the surface," says Geiger.
Once the particles reach chondrocytes, the IGF-1 molecules are bound to the receptors on the cell surface and stimulate the cells to produce structural blocks of proteoglycans, cartilage, and other compounds. IGF-1 also promotes cell growth and prevents cell death.
The researchers found that the rats were half a day after inserting the particles into the knee joints, which is 10 times higher than that of IGF-1. The concentrations of the compounds in the joints remained high enough to have a therapeutic effect for about 30 days. If these people are involved, patients may be injected once or twice a week, "researchers say.
In animal research, researchers have found that cartilage in the wounded joints treated with nanoparticles is significantly less affected by cartilage only in IGF-1 cured unhealthy joints or joints. In the deers also there was a decrease in joint inflammation and bone secretion.
The brittle granules had a thickness of about 100 microns, but researchers have shown that their particles can penetrate cartilage particles up to 1 millimeter – the thickness of the cartilage in human joints.
"It's a very difficult thing, drugs are usually cleaned before they can move through a lot of juice," says Geiger. "The ability of this technology to succeed when working on rats from large animals and daily people is related to working with mucous membrane."
Researchers have begun to make this material as osteoarthritis therapy after injury, but they believe it may be adapted to osteoarthritis due to age. Now, as with other factors, plans to explore the possibility of supplying various types of drugs, inflammatory cytokines, and nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA.
Scientists' knee joint injury leads to osteoarthritis
B.C. Geiger Al al., "Acid-penetrating nanoservers increase efficiency and effectiveness of osteoarthritis growth factors" Medical translation medicine (2018). stm.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/ … scitranslmed.aat8800