Friday , August 19 2022

New information on pathology mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease


Immune-electron microscopic image of the accumulated mountain protein in the cell membrane. Credit: Henry Hutten

Researchers at the University of Helsinki discovered a mechanism for the destruction of harmful mountain proteins among neurons. In addition to amyloid plaques, brain aggregates in the brain are important factors in the development of Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer 's disease is associated with two neuropathology: amyloid plaques and mountain aggregates or mountainous protein accumulated in neurofibrillar grains in neurons. Brain amyloid plaque is a known pathology, but the importance of the progression of the disease is equally important.

"Alzheimer's disease begins with the collection of cerebral amyloid, but symptoms usually cause mood pathology after amyloid pathology, with the death of neuronal cells and synapses increasing rapidly," said Henry Hutten. Associate Professor at the Neurochemistry Center at Helsinki University (HiLIFE division).

"Mountain accumulation is a really harmful element of the disease."

The mountain is found in healthy neurons, but erratively folded, accumulation of pathological mountains plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease.

Previously, stone aggregates thought that cells could only be excreted after death, but in recent years it has been discovered that mountain pathology can be transferred from patients to healthy cells. However, molecular mechanisms that can help penetrate into the cell membrane have been unclear.

Recent research by Henri Huttunen and Riikka-Liisa Uronen research group Cell reports The magazine summarizes the accumulation of pathogenic tincture that causes the safety valve mechanism in a regulated cell membrane.

When the protein mechanism is introduced, proteins end up in the cell membrane instead of the cell cytoskeleton. The rich lipid cell membrane plays a central role in this secretion mechanism, "says Huttoen.

The research employed cultural neurons and reporter proteins to closely monitor cell migration.

Usually, the cell membrane holds the internal and external parts of the cell strictly apart. Conductivity of membrane proteins, neurotransmitters and other biomolecules is a thoroughly regulated fat film.

A new mechanism for pharmacological molecules, which can be found in the context of the development of the drug. Mountain and amyloid brain and brain collection are already used for diagnostics of the disease.

Molecular data on interactions with blood cell membranes can be used to relieve other diseases related to Alzheimer's and Tavopatia.

Unlike amyloid plaques, mountain protein aggregates are also found in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as the frontontal dementia.

"Now we are able to cure the symptoms of these diseases, which improves treatment that slows the development of the disease," explains Hutunen.

The Hutton-initiated project has already discovered that cell membranes are susceptible to manipulation and have found that omega-3 fatty acids are especially effective in preventing the penetration of the membrane.

Neuronal cell membranes contain epidemiological data showing the importance of omega-3 fatty acids compared to other types of cells, which are reflected in modern dietary recommendations.

"The omega-3 fatty acids are fused with cell membranes, such as cell salvage. Omega-3 fatty acids change the micro-structure of the cell membrane into smaller aggregates and replace the protein in the cell," says Hutunen.

Further research:
Researchers identify new potential biotherapy for Alzheimer's disease

More information:
Mariya Merezhko and others, through the non-traditional and non-horizontal mechanism of nervous, Cell reports (2018). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cele.2018.10.078

Log definition:
Cell reports

Helsinki University

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