Wednesday , May 18 2022

WWI plays a key role in the formation of plastic surgery and modern anesthesia


Scenes of the First World War are scary. Price changes, but about 40 million military and civilian casualties – 20 million and 21 million injured. Never before has the conflict brought such a ruin in death and death. In the four years of war, military surgeons have developed new techniques on the battlefield and have supported hospitals that have led to the victims of traumatic injuries in the last two years of the war.

At the western front, 1.6 million British soldiers were successfully treated and returned to the trench. At the end of the war 735,487 British troops were released after major injuries. The majority of injuries were caused by a shell of explosion and shrapnel.

Most of the victims (16%) received injuries affecting the surface, and one third of them were considered "severe". Historically, this was a very minimal area, and survivors with large bodily injuries were left with great deformations, which made it harder to breathe, easily breathe, drink, and drink.

Her young surgeon from New Zealand (ear, nose and food) worked at the West Front Harold Gillis, trying to clean her face injuries and understanding that she needed special work. The time was right because military medical leaders acknowledged the benefits of establishing specialized centers to deal with specific injuries and injuries, such as neurosurgical, orthopedic injuries or gas flood victims.

He started moving to Gillis, and in January 1916, he established a plastic surgeon at the Cambridge Military Hospital in Aldershot, England. Gillis was looking for patients who were comfortable in France to go to their base hospitals. He was expected to wait for about 200 patients, but in 1916, more than 2,000 people were sent to the aldershot with the opening of the unit and the Aldershot face-lift. Also, treatment was needed for sailors and amateurs suffering from chest abortion.

Unique new art

Gillis described the development of plastic surgery as "a new art in the country." Many methods have evolved through trials and mistakes, but some mirrors have been made some centuries ago in India. One of the main methods of Gillist was the tube pedicle skin.

The skin is sealed, but not segregated from the body of the soldier's body, sutured into the tube and covered with injuries. There was a need for time to provide new blood at the implant site. Then it is separated and the tube is opened and it is applied to a zone of smooth skin.

One of the first patients to be treated was Walter Yeo, a HMS Warspit Arms Officer. Yeo received traumatic injuries, including the loss of his upper and lower eyelids, in the Battle of Jutland in 1916. The tube pedicure creates a new eye cover and creates a mask for the skin that is sampled on the face and eye. Even though the results are far from perfect, it means that it is again surface. Gillis repeats similar actions to thousands of people.

Various specialties were needed for both surgical and postoperative care as well as their care for patients' rehabilitation. Gillis played a crucial role in designing a specialist unit at the Queen Mary & # 39; s Hospital in Sidmouth, South-East London. It was opened in 320 beds – at the end of the war 600 seats and 11752 surgeries. But the recovery operation lasted for a long time. 1920-1925 Around 8,000 soldiers were treated. The department was completed in 1929.

Traumatic data, correction operations and final results are recorded in early clinical photos, as well as detailed drawings and drawings made by Henry Tonks, although painted as a physician. Tonks was a war artist at the West Front, but then joined Gillies to help him not only write new plastic procedures, but also help them to plan.

The only real achievements

Complex and general surgery requires new methods of delivery of anesthesia. Anesthesia, as a rule, developed as a profession during the war – its management, as well as training of doctors (formerly a member of the surgical team) had anesthesia.

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The survival of anesthesia is improving, but the technique is still based on chloroform and ether. Anesthetic group of Queen Mary has developed a method of passage of rubber tube to the trachea (resorption) from the nose to the endotracheal tube (from the mouth to trachea) from the commercial rubber tube. Many of their techniques are being used today. Austrian physician in 1935:No one was able to overcome the last war, but medical care. Raising knowledge has been the only detectable benefit of human suffering. "

Robert Kirby is Professor of Clinical Education and Surgery at Kiel University. This article first talks about The Conversation (

Author 1978-82 Director General of Army's Surgery, Major-General Northan G. Kirby wants to admit

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